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The Thornwillow Press Imprint: An Historical Sketch

By Ronald D. Patkus

"Printing is fundamentally a selection of materials already in existence, and an assembling of these different varieties of types and papers and ornaments; and it is the way that they are assembled that counts in the effect."

—Bruce Rogers, Paragraphs on Printing

Among the private presses operating in the United States today, one of the most recognized is the Thornwillow Press of Newburgh, New York. Guided by founder and publisher Luke Ives Pontifell, the stated mission of the press is to "enhance the relationship between the reader and the written word;" and further, its "paper, printing, binding and books are meant to be powerful media for communicating and preserving ideas in the modern world."1 Though today Thornwillow actually functions in several distinct but related areas (stationery and correspondence; gifts and library accessories; and books and bindings), it is the last of these, involving the design and production of limited edition books, where the press began and where today much of its energy is focused. This article focuses on this activity, and outlines the background, growth and development of Thornwillow Press, making note of its significant and noteworthy accomplishments in the field of fine printing over the course of the past twenty-five years.


As is the case with the history of all private presses, the history of Thornwillow Press is inseparable from the life of its founder. Luke Pontifell was born in New York in 1968 to Irena Martens, a sculptor and artist, and Jack Silverman, an advertising creative director.2 An only child, he moved at the age of seven to attend school near his family's house in West Stockbridge, Massachusetts. The home was a meticulously-restored 18th century farmhouse, named "Thornwillow" in reference to trees on the property. It exerted a great influence on Pontifell's young personality, along with the people he came into contact with there. His early years actually serve as background to the later history of his press, since they provide insight into its establishment, development, and eventual areas of focus.

For Pontifell, books were always part of the surroundings at home. Many of them had belonged to his German great-grandfather, and were passed down from his mother's side of the family. These volumes were not special editions or particularly rare, but because of their age—many dated from the 17th and 18th centuries—they did convey a sense of distant places and times. There were also books from his father's family, such as volumes illustrated by Fritz Eichenberg, Scribner's Classics, and sets of popular authors like Rudyard Kipling. In addition to these volumes, the house also featured a variety of interesting objects and artifacts. This was an historic house, filled with equipment, furniture, and utensils—not to mention books—that reflected longevity.

The ability to see and touch such unusual physical surroundings at home made an especially strong impression on the young Pontifell, for in infancy he was afflicted with glaucoma, the disease of the eyes that can lead to loss of sight. A number of operations were necessary throughout childhood, and a sense of impending loss of sight continually concerned him.3 Like the musician Stevie Wonder, Pontifell had special difficulty seeing things at a distance. He therefore especially appreciated the ability to examine objects closely. According to his father, "because his vision was so distorted, he became very focused on how things were done."4

The home in West Stockbridge would have been stimulating to any child interested in making things, since there was so much activity going on. Unusual items were not only present in the family home, they were also being created. Of course Pontifell's mother worked as an artist, and produced sculpture and other works in her studio. His grandfather was interested in copper, and fashioned a variety of objects from this material. And his parents together at one point made a "mouse house," which featured mice figures, including a printer mouse. Pontifell not only observed all of this activity; he participated in it as well. "I started teaching him crafts when he was 5," his mother once said. "He always paid attention to detail."5 His father added that "Without any training at all, he would copy calligraphy or figure out how to take things apart."6 In other words, Pontifell developed his own creative impulse.

Having absorbed much from a world marked by books, history, and the creation of art, at the age of 12 Pontifell transferred to the Collegiate School, located on the upper West Side of Manhattan. Summers were still spent at the home in West Stockbridge. At Collegiate, a small private school for boys, he took courses that were part of a rigorous curriculum, further shaping his intellectual outlook. The school has long advertised a philosophy of "cultivating individual talents and interests," and this appears to have been directly experienced by Pontifell.7 At the age of 16, his Latin teacher suggested that he further pursue his interest in books and bookmaking by taking an introductory course in letterpress printing at New York's Center for Book Arts. In this course he learned the basics of printing, and was moved to take another step: printing an edition of a book himself.

Establishment and Early Years of the Press

Shortly after finishing the course at the Center for Book Arts, Pontifell (with financial help from his parents) rented space there and began to produce his first book. The title was Hello Sun, a short work for children by Barbara England, a friend of the family. It was set using Weiss type, and featured handmade paper, illustrations by the author, and brown paper wrappers that were sewn by Pontifell and his mother on the kitchen table in West Stockbridge. One hundred copies were made, and the title page stated the publisher as "Thornwillow Press" of New York and West Stockbridge. The Thornwillow imprint was born.

The production of Hello Sun did not represent the passing interest of a high school student, but instead the beginning of a life-long career. Pontifell had given a copy of the book to William Shirer, the historian and journalist, and another friend of the family. Shirer at the time remarked that perhaps at some point Pontifell would be in a position to print and publish one of his works. This chance arose rather quickly; on his 17th birthday, Pontifell received from Shirer as a gift a manuscript of a work he had written that had not yet been published. He went to work on this second printing project, and in 1986 published An August to Remember, a reflection on the end of World War II. The book included a pen and ink drawing by Irena Martens. The edition this time was 300, with two different bindings.8

After graduating from the Collegiate School in 1986, Pontifell attended Harvard University, where he developed further his interest in books and bookmaking. He majored in History and Literature, a special interdisciplinary line of study that has been described as "one of Harvard's most individual and challenging concentrations."9 He took courses with two of the Houghton Library's most renowned curators: Roger Stoddard, and Rodney Dennis. Stoddard introduced Pontifell and his classmates to key works in the history of bookmaking, which helped the bibliophilic undergraduate gain an historical perspective on the field.10 Pontifell also became acquainted with local printers, like John Kristensen of the Firefly Press in Somerville, Massachusetts. At this time Pontifell also began to acquire for his own library books by well-known authors such as Emerson and also important titles by printers like Bruce Rogers.11

During his years at Harvard, Pontifell was able to produce three more books under the Thornwillow Press imprint, bringing his total output to five. These included Arthur Schlesinger's J.F.K. Remembered (commemorating the 25th anniversary of the president's assassination); Walter Cronkite's Remembering the Moon (printed on the 20th anniversary of a man landing on the moon); and Helmut Kohl's Partnerschaft in Freiheit/Partnership in Liberty (which was actually the text of Kohl's commencement address at Harvard in 1990). For each of these books Pontifell wrote directly to the authors, seeking a manuscript and sending along as reference a copy of one of his previously-published works. It was the care taken with the printing that impressed each of the authors, and led them to agree to work with such a young publisher.12

By the time Pontifell graduated from Harvard, there had already appeared a fair amount of publicity on him and his Thornwillow Press. Articles were published in a wide range of newspapers (for example, The Berkshire Eagle, the Boston Globe, the Chicago Tribune), and magazines (such as PeopleNew York, and Time). Time, in fact, was so enamored of Pontifell that in 1989 it presented him with a College Achievement Award. A portrait photograph of him under the heading "RISING STAR," complete with quotations he made on the place of fine printing in contemporary society, appeared for several weeks in the pages of the magazine.13 Pontifell was clearly making a name for himself, well before most people begin to think about what their first job will be. Similar articles appeared in succeeding years.14

The quotations that appeared in Time and other outlets showed that very early on Pontifell had to explain, in terms everyone could understand, why a person of his generation was interested in printing limited edition books. After all, this was a seemingly ancient craft that had little relevance in the modern age. Invariably he pointed to the idea of endurance, as when he said in Time "I have tried to create beautiful and physically enduring books, not transient ones..."15 The explanation revealed the essence of the young publisher's philosophy of bookmaking.

It was a natural development for Pontifell after graduation to continue printing and to try to turn what had really been a part-time endeavor into a full-fledged business. Within two years three more books were published. The first was a collection of essays on modern-day presidents by journalist Hugh Sidey, another friend of the family, titled The Presidency.16 The next two books were ambitious and quite different from anything that Pontifell had tried before. Neal Zaslaw's W.A. Mozart and Arthur Rimbaud's Le Bateau Ivre were formatted as portfolios, filled with facsimile reproductions and encased in large black linen boxes.17 The Mozart book, made available on the 200th anniversary of the composer's death, required substantial collaboration with a number of libraries and cultural institutions. It was the first book to feature the printer's motto "Ars Omnia Tuetur" in the colophon, further articulating a concern for the longevity of the printed word.18

If we look at the early Thornwillow books directly, as a group, we can learn more about specific choices that were made regarding the creation of "beautiful and physically enduring books." We see first of all a predominance of titles dealing with history, and literature, not surprising given Pontifell's undergraduate course of study. But as a whole the list of titles is eclectic, not locked into one specialized subject area. One also takes note of the publication of several new texts, not just those that have already been published. When previously-published texts were produced, there was always some unique aspect or quality to the Thornwillow edition. Most of the early books are the size of quartos, but again, this is not a hard and fast rule. Typically each book had two bindings (one in morocco and another in cloth). Almost all of the early books featured mould-made paper. A variety of typefaces were used, suggesting a period of typographical exploration; only one, Van Dijck, was used more than once.

From the beginning Pontifell was the designer of Thornwillow Press books, and the first three were personally printed by him (the second and third books were produced in spaces rented at the Penmaen Press). But in the first years the imprint also benefited from the collaboration of many other individuals. A variety of authors, artists, printers, typesetters, binders, and even booksellers played important roles in the production and distribution of individual titles. Several of the early collaborators were people Pontifell knew, such as his mother, who provided illustrations for the Shirer and Cronkite books, and friends like England, Shirer, and Sidey. But he also reached out to others. Partnerships with distinguished figures like Schlesinger, Cronkite, and Kohl certainly propelled the press forward. Michael McCurdy, proprietor of the Penmaen Press, created the wood engraving for the Schlesinger book. From 1989 on, books were typeset offsite, usually by Michael and Winifred Bixler of Skaneateles, New York, and printed at firms like the Wild Carrot Press and Stinehour Press. Karl Foulkes at the Spectrum Bindery in Florida, New York was responsible for several early bindings; Harcourt Bindery of Boston bound the Sidey book. Booksellers in the Berkshires and New York offered the first Thornwillow titles, and eventually an agreement was reached with Rizzoli of New York, so that their bookstores would be exclusive distributors across the United States.

The years from 1985 to 1992 represent the first stage of the Thornwillow Press. During this period, the press was established, and eventually grew into a business. This was not a thriving operation, though, and basically each project financed the next.19The aesthetic quality of individual titles developed quickly. Interesting works were produced, sometimes with the assistance of family and friends, but we also see that Pontifell clearly applied his own thought and energy to projects. A philosophy of printing was enunciated both in print and via public lectures.20 A number of practices were begun that would characterize Thornwillow Press well into the future.


At some point in the early 90s, Pontifell received a letter from a former classmate, discussing various aspects of bookmaking. He was thankful for the advice, but what really intrigued him was that the letter was written on paper handmade in the Czech Republic at Velké Losiny. He found it both beautiful and durable. He wanted to learn more, and soon he made plans to travel to Europe. He was especially interested in going to the region of Moravia, in the eastern part of the Czech Republic, where the village of Velké Losiny was located, and where a long tradition of papermaking—in fact one of the oldest in all of Europe—was still present.

The visit to Moravia had an immediate effect on the operations and output of the Thornwillow Press. We see this reflected in the ninth book printed by the press, Chief Justice Warren Burger's The Bill of Rights (1993). The paper for the book was produced at the Velké Losiny mill; it featured a thornwillow watermark and a Velké Losiny countermark. It is also significant that for the first time the colophon lists the locations of the press as New York, West Stockbridge, and Prague. An office had been established in the Czech capitol, indicating a commitment to a European presence. This completed what had been for Pontifell a long-held wish.21

While the office in Prague got up and running, Pontifell pursued opportunities in Moravia. He had visited and was struck by the small village of Zvole, where papermaking had a long history. He contemplated ways of becoming more involved with papermaking, and began discussions with Montblanc, the German manufacturer of writing instruments, watches, and other accessories, and for whom he had already done some design work. With a commitment from Montblanc to purchase sizeable quantities of paper, Pontifell made the decision to establish papermaking operations at the papermill in Zvole. He hired artisans and skilled workers who had once been employed at Velké Losiny, and other workers from the area. With this assembled team, he reopened the Cardinal Mill.

Pontifell did not originally plan it this way, but within a relatively short space of time, operations at the Cardinal Mill expanded considerably. Approximately fifty employees eventually joined the staff, and were given responsibilities for various aspects of papermaking. More business contacts were made, and in addition to supplying Montblanc, orders came in from premier stationery firms like William Arthur and Crane & Co., as well as other companies like Polo and Cartier. Combining American entrepeneurship with the expertise of European craftsmanship, the Cardinal Mill quickly became one of the largest producers of handmade paper in the world.22

Simultaneously the publishing program of Thornwillow Press continued. The Cardinal Mill supplied paper for Thornwillow books, an uncustomary and notable arrangement in the world of private press printing. This was an especially fruitful period for the press; between 1994 and 2000, nine books were published: Monticello and the Legacy of Thomas Jefferson, by Wendell Garrett; The Lady Who Liked Clean Rest Rooms, by J.P. Donleavy; The Figure You, by David St. John; Last Poems, by James Merrill; A Showing of Weimaraner, by William Wegman; Civil Wars, by Louis Auchincloss; Lighthouse Poems; Lincoln at Home, by David Herbert Donald; and Roger Eliot Stoddard at Sixty-five. It is also worth noting that apart from these books, which bore the Thornwillow imprint, the press during this time began to put out a number of private printings; these books were produced by the press mainly for private individuals, but they didn't bear its imprint.23 A series of broadsides and holiday keepsakes were also published.24

The years in Zvole were thus filled with activity and accomplishment, but there were nevertheless challenges. Of special concern was the fact that the papermill was rented, not owned. An opportunity arose to purchase an old manor house in Briza, a Bohemian town not far from the German border. Pontifell acquired the building, and a core group of employees moved with him to the new location. The manor house was renovated, and a new mill was opened, called "Bohemia Paper." Papermaking thus continued, though not quite on the same scale as before.

Presses and other machines were added to the site in Briza, and the Thornwillow imprint continued. Between 2001 and 2002 three more books appeared, bringing the total number of Thornwillow Press publications to twenty-one. They included Alphababel, by John Hutton; Catullus: The Poems, translated by Rodney Dennis; and Three Stories, by John Updike. The press had clearly blossomed since 1993, and entered a second stage of development. The 2002 books, however (Catullus: The Poems and Three Stories) were actually the last to include in the colophon mention of Prague as a location of the press.

Examining the books of the Prague years, i.e. those printed between 1993 and 2002, we see certain defining characteristics. The majority of books dealt with literature, though some concerned history and other topics. Most books were again of quarto size, and it was common for each edition to have variant bindings. Once more a few books were presented in a portfolio format, and on a couple of occasions portfolios of illustrations were produced along with the edition. In some form illustrative art was a feature of each edition. Thus trends of earlier years continued. But whereas earlier books usually included mould-made paper, in these years they all had paper handmade at either the Cardinal Mill (early years) or Bohemia Paper (later years). Usually the paper made at the Cardinal Mill was watermarked with a thornwillow branch. In the early years of the press a variety of typefaces had been used, but during the Prague years this changed somewhat, as Jenson and especially Garamond became favored.

As in the first stage of Thornwillow history, a variety of people contributed substantively to the creation of particular titles during this second stage. Several major literary figures signed on as authors, and propelled the imprint forward, such as J.P. Donleavy, James Merrill, Louis Auchincloss, and John Updike. A number of artists provided various kinds of illustrations to accompany texts; Elliott Banfield, John Hutton, and Mariana Cook each worked on two books. Typesetting again was often carried out by Michael and Winifred Bixler. Printing was sometimes done by the Bixlers, or by Czech printers. Much of the binding during these years was completed by Miroslava and Lubomir Krupka, though at the end of the period books were being sent to Northamptonshire, England for this work. In order to promote distribution, prospectuses were made for all of the books of the Prague years, and issued in paper wrappers, sometimes with illustrations.

Far more books had been produced when Pontifell operated the mill in Moravia than when he transferred to Bohemia. The situation in Bohemia was especially challenging and real difficulties emerged for the business both internally and externally. All of this came to a head during the final stages of production for the Catullus and Updike books. Pontifell came to work one day and discovered that all of the stock for these books had disappeared. Eventually he learned that the books were available, and could be returned to him, but for a price. After careful consideration, and at significant expense, Pontifell made the decision simply to leave the Czech Republic. He began to search for a new location in the United States, where he hoped the press could carry out its work more freely.25

Return to the States

The years from 2003 to 2005 represented a period of transition for the Thornwillow Press. Though Pontifell was in the process of removing himself from the operation in Bohemia, the press managed to publish three books during this time: Peter Gomes' Gomes's Book of Good Graces; Mark Strand's Candy; and John Updike's In Love with a Wanton. These titles show an ongoing interest in literary topics, as well as openness to other subjects. All of the authors were major figures in their respective fields. The tradition of producing variant bindings continued with the first two books; three were made for each of them, including an especially interesting binding of the poem Candy, in a very limited hand-written edition (four copies). These two books also used typefaces (Jenson and Bulmer) that had been used previously. Artwork was featured in the last two books, by Wendy Mark—who had worked with the press once before—and Tania Lee. The three books of this period, with the exception of the four unique copies of Candy, featured paper with textured finishes.

By 2004, Pontifell had opened shops at the luxury retailers Bergdorf Goodman in New York and Gump's in San Francisco, where customers could buy Thornwillow Press books and stationery.26 Fortnum and Mason in London later became another outlet. In this transitional period, Pontifell was briefly active in Pensacola, Florida, where he made contact with an engraver and developed in this area of printing. He established a small company called "Mangrove Gravure," but the venture did not last very long. He then returned to New York, and looked for a place to re-establish the Thornwillow Press. The story is told that his wife, Savine, drew a circle around the city that took in communities one hour away. She thus came upon Newburgh, New York, an hour north of Manhattan, on the Hudson River.27

Pontifell contacted Hudson Valley business development officials about the possibility of transferring to Newburgh, and eventually learned of an old coat factory that was for sale.28 In 2005 he acquired a complex of buildings, located within walking distance of George Washington's revolutionary war headquarters. A great advantage of this site was that it would provide the opportunity to set up a variety of operations relating to bookmaking in one place. Presses and other equipment were transferred from Florida, and a team of employees was hired and trained. Eventually separate areas were created for typecases, printing, polymer plate production, die-cutting, engraving, paper-cutting and calendering, book edge gilding, binding, enveloping and shipping. Administrative offices were set up adjacent to the work areas.29

The multiplicity of operations allowed Thornwillow Press to develop product lines in stationery and library accessories, but limited edition printing continued apace.30 The first books produced in Newburgh came off the press between 2006 and 2008; they began the "American Presidency" series. Appropriately enough—given the location of the press—the very first book was In Search of George Washington by W.W. Abbott; this was followed by The Legacy of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson Illuminated, both by Wendell Garrett. As is common with a series, these books had many similarities. Each was offered in a deluxe Montblanc binding, which featured an original historical artifact, and a variant binding. The Caslon typeface was used, on paper with a textured finish. A highlight of each book was the inclusion of high-quality facsimiles of art and important documents.

The publishing program at Thornwillow Press quickly reached the pace of the Moravian years, and in 2008 and 2009 was actually at its busiest pace ever. After the appearance of the last title in the "American Presidency" series, five other books appeared: A Visit from St. Nicholas and Cinderella, both by John Hutton; Inaugural Address, by Barack Obama; Let Me Count the Ways, by Elizabeth and Robert Browning; and While the Women Are Sleeping, by Javier Marías. As in the past, these titles represent both published and previously-unpublished material, with an emphasis on history and literature. Jenson and Garamond typefaces were used for all of these books, again with textured-finish papers. Artwork or illustrations were featured in each, and all were available in variant bindings.

Thornwillow Press has published the work of a variety of authors during the Newburgh years, ranging from a sitting United States president to a leading novelist to acclaimed scholars. Three of the eight books of this period featured illustrative material, either the work of artists, or special photographs and facsimiles. One author (Wendell Garrett) and two artists (Wendy Mark and John Hutton) had collaborated with the press previously. A distinguishing feature of the Newburgh years has been that the typesetting, printing, paper marbling, paste-paper production, and binding have all been carried out in-house.

Summary and Looking Ahead

2010 marks the 25th anniversary of Thornwillow Press. Even a quick review of the history of its imprint, such as this, reveals that over time there have been a number of significant developments, especially with regard to geography and operations. Yet throughout these changes, the principle aims of the press have remained constant: to produce books that endure, and to enhance the relationship between readers and their texts. Many impressive volumes have been produced which cannot be fully appreciated until one sees them in person. When they are examined firsthand, it is easy to see why institutions such as The Library of Congress, the Bibliotheque Nationale, the Beinecke Library at Yale, the Houghton Library at Harvard, and many other libraries, not to mention private collectors, have added them to their holdings.

As has been noted in this essay, the Thornwillow Press imprint has taken on specific traits at particular times in its history. When viewing the thirty-two books that were produced between 1985 and 2009, though, it is possible to see certain common features. Typically only one or two books were published per year (sometimes none, sometimes more). Pontifell has always been the designer. Most books have dealt with history or literature, but books on art, music, politics, and religion have appeared. On balance, Jenson and Garamond are the favored typefaces. Some form of illustration is common, and usually a text is available in more than one binding.

What kinds of books will Thornwillow Press create in the next twenty-five years? Almost certainly the philosophical aims of the press will persist. In the short term, it seems likely that the rate of publication (one to three books a year) will continue, as will the "American Presidency" series. Beyond this it is impossible to say exactly which titles will come from the press, though we are likely to see more history and literature. If expansion continues, the production of handmade paper may well return to the firm.31 We may then see future Thornwillow Press books produced almost entirely under one roof.

Apart from the publication of books, it is worth noting that the press has taken root in the metropolitan New York area, and has established relationships with local figures, organizations, and institutions, an effort that should continue into the future. The Century Club in New York, for instance, will host an exhibition of the press in 2010 to mark the 25th anniversary. Closer to Newburgh, Vassar College, in Poughkeepsie, New York, recently became an official repository of the press, and will collect all publications, examples of ephemera, and other materials relating to Thornwillow Press.32 Pontifell has also envisioned the establishment of a "Thornwillow Academy," which would provide opportunities for students and others to learn about printing and related activities on site in Newburgh, and there are plans to create a series of lectures and other programs for the general public.33 With a history of great achievement, and plans to forge ahead in collaboration with others interested in the graphic arts, the future of Thornwillow Press appears bright indeed.

  1. Thornwillow Press website,
  2. At birth Pontifell received his father's surname, Silverman. He and his family agreed that it should be changed to Pontifell, the original name of his father's family, when he was 17.
  3. Interview with LIP, June 2, 2010.
  4. Susan Reed, "A Young Harvard Craftsman Makes a Book You Can Tell by Its Cover," People, November 14, 1988.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid.
  7. See the school website, available at
  8. See Ellen G. Lahr, "Teenager publishes Shirer's new book in limited edition," The Berkshire Eagle, August 28, 1986.
  9. See
  10. For a light-hearted review of the relationship between Pontifell and Stoddard, see Pontifell's story "Stoddard To Taste: Some Thoughts to Bear in Mind," in Roger Eliot Stoddard at Sixty-five (Thornwillow Press, 2000).
  11. Interview with LIP, June 2, 2010.
  12. David Krauss, "One for the Books," USAir Magazine, April 1991.
  13. "Rising Star" advertisement, Time, September 18, 1989.
  14. See for example, "Bibliopegist," in Harvard Magazine, March-April 1991.
  15. "Rising Star" advertisement, as cited above.
  16. Elizabeth P. Valk, "From the Publisher" Time, November 25, 1991.
  17. The Rimbaud book was discussed in "The Talk of the Town," The New Yorker, October 12, 1992.
  18. The motto "Ars Artium Conservatrix" was used earlier, but it appeared only once, in the Sidey book.
  19. Brad Herzog, "He Has the Future Covered," in Attaché, August 1999.
  20. In the fall of 1992 Pontifell lectured at Dartmouth College. See "Publishing prodigy Luke Ives Pontifell to give Graphic Arts Workshop lecture," Vox of Dartmouth, September 20-October 3, 1992.
  21. David Krauss, "One for the Books."
  22. Interview with LIP, June 2, 2010.
  23. Especially noteworthy among the private printings were works for the Wilderness Society and the White House Historical Association.
  24. The holiday keepsakes featured art of Irena Martens and bore the title Sei Umarmt.
  25. Interview with LIP, June 9, 2010.
  26. Gary Shapiro, "Hardly By the Book: Luke Ives Pontifell," Knickerbocker, July 2-4, 2004.
  27. Ann Gibbons, "Lasting Impressions," Kingston Daily Freeman, May 23, 2010.
  28. "The Written Word is Alive and Well in Newburgh," Resources and Results, October 2005, available at:
  29. Today, twenty-five different presses are present, including a very early Vandercook (#12) and one of seventy-five U.S. Bureau of Printing and Engraving presses.
  30. For more on stationery and accessory offerings, see
  31. Interview with LIP, June 2, 2010. Pontifell recently acquired additional equipment that can be used in the papermaking process.
  32. "Thornwillow Press to Vassar," Fine Books and Collections Notes, May 3, 2010, available at:
  33. Ann Gibbons, "Lasting Impressions," Kingston Daily Freeman, May 23, 2010.