Members of the Vassar branch of the Consumers League, starting to investigate conditions in Poughkeepsie shops and businesses, were forbidden to do so by President Taylor.  The league, founded in 1899 by Jane Addams and Josephine Lowell, had been active at Vassar since 1900, and by 1908 The Vassar Miscellany was publishing the league’s manifestos and a “white list” of New York shops—those who met the league’s conditions for workers and practices.